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Personas and User Stories

There has been a body of excellent work done by other groups before us. And people sometime sure "use case" and "user story" interchangeably. They're not. User stories are a specific term from agile software with the template below. And a user story has a persona as the actor.

A use case tends to look at a deeper or more complete scenario. While these are helpful, this WG is focusing on the data and the user actions that will be taken with that data, especially as we enter the second stage of the project with reference implementations. Looking at the problem from the perspective of what your users are trying to do, their skills and inclinations can bring great insights into the problem and guide the data.

Below is a list of some of the work done to date.

As these will be indexed in properties, the numbering should be preserved (don't edit existing stories out, add yours to the end or a persona). For example, the educator person on captioned videos would be referred to as "A1"

User Story Template

I, as USER (persona), need to TASK in order to PROBLEM_DEFINITION

After this short description (and this syntax should be rigidly adhered to), there may be further conversation or thoughts about the story. These should be captured if you can, as the subtleties are often found in the conversation.

Persona Template

One open question is whether some of personas should be collapsed together or are covered by a combination of other personas. Let's keep them independent until we understand them well and then we can bring them together if needed (but feel free to add comments inline on the page for what you think should happen). Even if they have the same need, each persona may come at that need from a different perspective and will need different data to make their decision. Some folks write personas that are very long and involved, but we're tight on time (and can develop these personas more if there is a need).

There are a few articles recommended on personas. MSDN has the "Power of Personas". This blog on personas and the reference to Cooper's original article are also very helpful. The guidelines for sections in a persona are below. A key to the persona is to understand the goal of the person in that role.

Role name
Goals  
Background  
Attitudes  
Behavior  

The Aegis effort created some of the deepest personas (a great resource and example of personas) and overview. These are very helpful for defining the user disability, but our perspective is a bit different... focusing on the range of needs that a person will have in various contexts.  But do look at them as the best personas.

An example unrelated to our task (but that can make it easier to understand the concept) is (note that this content comes from the 280 Group (Chuck Myers is affiliated with them). This can be removed once we have good personas defined in our effort.

Persona

Salesperson Power User Tom
Goals
  • Quick and painless input of his sales data to satisfy management
  • Access to customer account information with minimum disruption to his job
Background
  • 35, male, San Jose, College graduate, $97,000/year in enterprise software sales
  • Used Salesforce.com at previous employer
  • Understands and uses Windows at work, prefers his Mac at home
  • MacBook, Firefox, Mac Office 2011, WiFi at work and home, iPhone
Attitudes
  • Doesn’t trust most web sites with personal information of any kind
  • Didn’t see a personal benefit of CRM but management required it as part of his job
  • Values style and elegance
Behavior
  • Often uses the iPhone to browse the web while mobile
  • Often buys latest gadgets and software
  • Loves to brag about his technical competency

User Story

I as a <salesperson power user> need to <update the size of the deal> in order to <keep management informed>

User Stories Grouped by Persona

(A) Educator/Teacher

Educator name
Goals  
Background  
Attitudes  
Behavior  
  1. I as an educator need to be able to find captioned videos to teach my deaf students using Khan Academy videos
  2. I as an educator need to be able to search for mathematics resources to suit a student who uses Braille (which may simply be the adaptation of the content that others are using, or content that is related to that particluar topic) 
  3. I as an educator need to be able to find instructions for an instrument that can be read aloud as they are used
  4. I as an educator need to be able to rate a resource on suitability for a special need
  5. I as an educator need to be able to rate a resource on its accessibility quality for its primary accessible target (this may be different from the one above... not sure)
  6. I as an educator would like to give a profile of the unique needs of my students and be presented with a list of resources that addresses the union of their needs, rather than individual searches.

(B) Student/Learner

Role name
Goals  
Background  
Attitudes  
Behavior  

Here are the current user stories, 

  1. As a student, I need to be able to know whether resources will allow me to set the font size and color so that I can read without fatigue for long sessions
  2. As a student, I need to be able to locate resources available in Braille so I can learn math/science material efficiently
  3. As a student, I need to be able to learn Spanish from suitable resources while I drive my car.
  4. As a student, I need to be able to know which resources have audio narration. 
  5. As a student, I need to be able to know which resources (especially for places or objects) have verbal/audio descriptions. 
  6. As a student, I need to be able to locate resources for a peer.
  7. As a student, I need to be able to locate resources that work with my accessibility API and interface(s) of choice.

Note that we decided on 1/24 that there should be user stories that map to each of the properties and (possibly) the property values. Please keep that in mind as user stories are developed. 

(C) Librarian

Role name
Goals  
Background  
Attitudes  
Behavior  
  1. As a librarian, I need a simple system that helps me locate resources for a wide range of users whose disabilities I may not fully understand (comment from LN: this might be better worded as "for students whose requirements are determined by their assistants and given to me)(MR: I think there might be two or three different user stories here! Not all students have assistants. And actually, I was thinking of a public library librarian, who has users arrive and ask for computer/searching help but knows only what they say up front about their access needs, which may be needs the librarian hasn't heard of before and therefore doesn't fully understand from the user's quick explanation. At a small school, the librarian might know the students (and in younger ages, an assistant or teacher is more likely to mediate) but at older ages and in larger schools/universities, the librarian probably won't know all students.)
  2. As a librarian, I need to be able to easily explain the metadata system to new users (comment LN: does this mean to tell them how the system works or to tell them how to use it to find resources they can use?) (MR: I meant "tell them how to use it to find resources they can use.")
  3. As a librarian, I need to be able to check if student reading lists contain resources that will need to be augmented with alternatives for a particular student cohort
  4. As a librarian, when I find good alternatives for resources that are not accessible to everyone, I would like to be able to describe them to save someone else from having to do the same search or go without.
  5. As a librarian, I need to be able to effectively locate relevant resources for patrons with a variety of print disabilities. 

(D) Parent

Role name
Goals  
Background  
Attitudes  
Behavior  
  1. Similar to Educator? (things that they do may be, but the amount of time to iinvest and motivation will be different) -

(E) Learning Systems Developer

There may be multiple developers - content developers (creating the material), learning system developers (creating the systems that use a set of the content… these are the folks who would set up a learning registry), and possibly others. Publisher/content creator has the other side of developer/ creator

Aegis also had two different developer personas

  1. Software developer (Aegis)
  2. Accessibility expert (Aegis)
Role name
Goals  
Background  
Attitudes  
Behavior  
  1. As a developer, I need to know that the system we have for serving resources to clients will be able to integrate any accessibility requirements (metadata) with other discovery requirements (metadata) - interoperability will be essential
  2. As a developer, I need guidelines for creating accessible content and know the major categories of accommodations for online content

(F) Disability Services Provider

Role name
Goals  
Background  
Attitudes  
Behavior  
  1. As a disability services provider, I need to be able to describe transformations and alternatives so that they can be found by others using 'whatever' conformant services (sharing and therefore interoperability across systems will matter)

(G) Publisher/Content Creator (there may be different needs for media and content publishers)

Role name
Goals  
Background  
Attitudes  
Behavior  
  1. I, as publisher, will not always be able to provide universally accessible resources but I would like to be able to find existing alternatives and associate them with what I publish
  2. I, as a publisher, need to be able to review adaptations of my content that were done by others and associate specific ones that I view highly with my content (and possibly deprecate others)
  3. I, as a publisher, need more accessible alternatives to Captchas for controlling access to for-fee content.
  4. I, as a publisher, need to be able to certify to potential customers that our products meet relevant accessibility standards (or will meet them by the time a contract is in place), in order to sell to certain customers.
  5. I, as a commercial publisher of educational resources (eg e-books) which I try to make as accessible as possible, already produce metadata for my commercial partners (e-book retail platforms, e-book library platforms) that incorporates accessibility metadata along with all the other details of the product. I also need to be able to expose this product metadata to search engines -- but critically, I need semantic interoperability between the embedded markup standard for search engines and the out-of-band metadata that is already used in the commercial supply chain.
  6. I, as a publisher, need to have tools to make my content friendly for special needs adhering to standards.

The point of this is obviously to ensure that my internal management processes for the accessibility metadata do not need to be duplicated, but can be fed from a single source. The semantically-equivalent metadata can of course be expressed quite differently (different syntax).

(H) Crowdsourced contributor

Role name
Goals  
Background  
Attitudes  
Behavior  
  1. I, as a crowdsourced contributor, need to be able to make my translations/captioning available to (need the name for an end-user). See Amara for an example of this.
  2. I, as a crowdsourced contributor, need to make audio renditions of content available and associated with a resource so that it can be found

(I) Repository/Content Distributor

Role name
Goals  
Background  
Attitudes  
Behavior  
  1. I, as a content contributor, need to be able to communicate in a succinct way (mb: content contributor or distributor?) (crm: and communicate what?)
  2. I, as a Repository, need to offer search for resources in various ways, including faceted search
  3. I, as a Repository, need to offer a simple way for resources to be marked up and submitted
  4. I, as a Repository, need a backup plan for indexing resources when metadata is missing
  5. I, as a Repository, would like to filter content by major accessibility categories

(J) Aggregator/ Indexer

Role name
Goals  
Background  
Attitudes  
Behavior  
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  1. Feb 05, 2013

    Charles Myers says:

    Here are notes from a phone Monday 2/4 with Jutta and Chris Anderton. After thi...

    Here are notes from a phone Monday 2/4 with Jutta and Chris Anderton.

    After this call, Jutta was going to find the user story.  I decided that I'd write as many user stories as I could, come up with a numbering/naming scheme and cross-reference these in the properties page.  I have begin that effort, and we'll have a meeting with AfA folks 2/6 to try to being this to a first level of closure.

    Ideas for "flipping" the user stories

    We will NOT focus on the disability in personas, role (not Aegis-oriented)

    Look at goals a new way:

    Role/Persona (break down into consumer/ supplier categories)

    • Originator/Creator
    • Distributor
    • Consumer - student/learner
    • Aggregator - machine process
    • Curator/ librarian - human process
    • Recommender (social network, paradata) 
    • Planner (teacher finding resources)
    • Augmenter (people who add captions, record audio, or transcribe content, translate content without editorial changes or slicing/dicing) 
    • Adapter (people who add their own spin and contribute back as a derived work) [what is the derived work concept in LRMI, CC 3.0 atrribution /OER

    Many consumers are suppliers (as they create derived works)

    High-level goals of information consumer

    • Have a concept in mind and am searching for content
    • Have content in hand and am looking for adjacent or adapted/adaptable content

    Detailed Goals (don't have these concepts sorted as well as they could be)

    • Have a long-term impairment
    • Am transitioning into an impaired context
    • am seeking alternative presentations to better suit my learning style
    • Am seeking adapted content for another (friend, student, peer) who has or is transitioning into an impaired context

    I require an [visual, audio, other] alternative to [visual, audio, other]  because [reason]

    • Want to adapt content for someone else
    • want to provide information on accessibility properties
    • as a content provider, curator, source, want to sanction/approve adapted content from others
    • Am looking for more or less advanced resources (and possibly alternate presentations) to provide alternative views to adapt to learning in styles

    Maybe look at doing "conception to use" story/ long scenario

    Jutta to look for Learning Objects "day in the life or a learning object"

    learning object created by a financial institution on how to use an ATM to do a specific financial transaction 

    CRM on ATM, Jutta can look for content

    Different media types/ content that start the process may spark multiple "day in the life"

    People to contribute frameworks, even if bare bones (and then we augment)

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