GLOSSARY

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GLOSSARY

Back to:  3. Scan a Book

Back to:  4. Proofread a Book


Adult Content Policy
Noun.  From the Bookshare policy:  The default for all members under the age of 18, including students covered by the Bookshare for Education grant, is NOT to see adult content.  A parent or guardian must give permission to Bookshare in writing for members under the age of 18 to access books with adult content.
Bookshare usage: 
URL: https://wiki.benetech.org/display/BSO/6.+Extra+Reading#6.ExtraReading-AdultContentpolicy


Approval Queue
Noun.  A queue where books end up after a Bookshare volunteer proofreader does a Check in.  A Bookshare administrator will check each book in the Approval Queue.  If the book meets criteria it goes live into the collection.  If not, it may be returned to the Checkout List to give the proofreader another opportunity for further editing.
Bookshare usage: 


ASCII
Noun.  American Standard Code for Information Interchange.
See:Bookshare http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc20.
Bookshare usage:  Identical to normal usage.


Assistive Technology
Noun.  Any form of computer software or hardware, either in a desktop or as a stand alone device, that aides someone with a disability with daily tasks.
Examples include:  Talking watches, color identifiers, money identifiers, scanners, screen readers, screen magnifiers, voice recognition software, special keyboards, closed captioning, power wheelchairs, lifts, and many more.
Bookshare usage:  Identical to normal usage.


Back matter
Noun.  The sections near the end of a book, after the front matter and the main text (body of the book).
aka:  Rear matter ;  End matter ;  Reference matter
Examples:  About the author,  Acknowledgments,  Afterword,  Appendix,  Bibliography,  Epilogue,  Glossary,  Index,  Notes.
Contrast with:&nbps; Front matter
Bookshare usage:  Identical to normal usage.
Further reading:
http://www.sil.org/lingualinks/literacy/referencematerials/glossaryofliteracyterms/whatisfrontandbackmatter.htm


Back-number
Verb. 
Bookshare usage:  After finding the First numbered page in a scan of a book, adding page numbers to pages before the first numbered page.


Beneblog
Noun.  A blog where Jim Fruchterman explores the social entrepreneurship side of technology applications.
See:  http://benetech.blogspot.com/
Bookshare usage:  Identical to normal usage.


Benetech
Noun.  A company with the goal to create new technology solutions that serve humanity and empower people to improve their lives.  Benetech emerged out of Jim Fruchterman's work for Arkenstone, a producer of reading machines for the blind.
Source:  http://www.benetech.org/about/
Bookshare usage:  Identical to normal usage.


Blank pages
Noun. 
Bookshare usage:  Every Submitter (a volunteer who scans a book) should label all blank pages in the scan of the book.  This is to verify that these pages are indeed blank in the original book, and not pages that contained text that was somehow omitted by mistake.  One accepted label to use for blank pages is:
[BLANK PAGE]


Book flaps
Noun.  The dust jacket (sometimes book jacket, dust wrapper or dust cover) of a book is the detachable outer cover, usually made of paper and printed with text and illustrations. This outer cover has folded flaps that hold it to the front and back book covers.
Source:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Book_design#Front_cover.2C_spine.2C_and_back_cover_of_the_dust-jacket
Bookshare usage:  Identical to normal usage.


Book jacket
Noun.  A paper jacket for a book on which promotional information is usually printed.
Aka:  dust cover, dust jacket, dust wrapper
Source:  http://www.thefreedictionary.com/book+jacket
Bookshare usage:  Identical to normal usage.


Book Pipeline
Noun.  A channel (either physical or logical) by which information is transmitted sequentially (that is, the first information in is the first information out).
Source:  http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/pipeline
Bookshare usage:  Used to refer to the many-stepped process by which a book travels in order to get into the Bookshare library (Bookshare collection).
Related term:  Books in Process


Books in Process
Noun. 
Bookshare usage:  After logging in, a section of pages showing which books are currently being processed for addition to the Bookshare Library.  This includes the subsections:  In Processing,  Awaiting Approval  and Recently Rejected.


Book Processing History
Noun. 
Bookshare usage:  A page for each book, whether one of the books in process or live in the Bookshare library, containing the history of the book's processing, including steps done by the submitter, the proofreader, and staff.


Bookshare
Noun.  Bookshare® is a web-based digital library that gives people with print disabilities the same ease of access to books and periodicals enjoyed by those without disabilities.  Bookshare provides two free DAISY readers and free voices for reading Bookshare books.
Bookshare usage:  Identical to normal usage.


Booksharian
Noun. 
Bookshare usage:  An infrequently used term to refer to Bookshare volunteers or staff.


Braille
Noun.  A system of writing and printing for blind or visually impaired people, in which varied arrangements of raised dots representing letters and numerals are identified by touch.  It was invented by Louis Braille, a French musician and educator from 1809 to 1852.
Bookshare usage:  Identical to normal usage.


Braille translator
Noun.  Software which converts printed material into Braille.
Bookshare usage:  Identical to normal usage.


Brailler
Noun.  A machine analogous to a typewriter, used for printing in Braille.  Also called a Braillewriter.
Bookshare usage:  Identical to normal usage.


Braillewriter
Noun.  A machine analogous to a typewriter, used for printing in Braille.  Also called a Brailler.
Bookshare usage:  Identical to normal usage.


Caret
Can be confused with:  carat
Noun.  (plural carets)  A mark (^) used by writers and proof readers to indicate that something is to be inserted in the place marked by the caret.
Source:  http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/caret
Bookshare usage:  Identical to normal usage.


Chafee Amendment
Noun.  The Chafee Amendment to the Copyright Act, 17 U.S.C. Section 121, allows an "authorized entity" to reproduce or distribute copyrighted materials in specialized formats for blind or other disabled students without the need to obtain permission of the copyright owner.  Authorized entities are governmental or nonprofit organizations whose primary mission is to provide copyrighted works in specialized formats to blind or disabled people.
Source:  http://www.afb.org/Section.asp?SectionID=44&TopicID=16&SubTopicID=33&DocumentID=1785
Bookshare usage:  Identical to normal usage.


Check in
Verb. 
Bookshare usage:  A proofreader volunteer uploads their finished proof back to Bookshare by first logging in, then going to their My Checked Out Books page.  In the "Action" column, they click the link "Check in" and are presented with a series of screens in which to verify the metadata of that book.


Check out
Verb.  A proofreader volunteer selects a book to proofread by first logging in, then going to the Checkout List.  In the "Action" column, they click the link "Check out" and are presented with screens allowing them to download the book to their computer.  The book disappears from the Checkout List and now appears in the volunteer's My Checked Out Books.
Bookshare usage: 


Checkout List
Noun. 
Bookshare usage:  A queue of books that have been scanned by Bookshare volunteers.  These books are waiting to be checked out by proofreader volunteers.  However, please honor that any book with the words Hold for in the book title is reserved for a specific volunteer.  Do not check out any book with a "Hold for" unless your name also appears in the title.  Search this list by typing in the field called "Search for title or author", which searches only the Checkout List and not the entire library.


Chop & Scan
Verb. 
Bookshare usage:  Shorthand for the despining, scanning and OCRing of books at Bookshare.


Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD)
Noun.  The CRPD and its Optional Protocol was adopted on 13 December 2006 at the United Nations Headquarters in New York.  It is the first comprehensive human rights treaty of the 21st century and is the first human rights convention to be open for signature by regional integration organizations.
The Convention is intended as a human rights instrument with an explicit, social development dimension.  It adopts a broad categorization of persons with disabilities and reaffirms that all persons with all types of disabilities must enjoy all human rights and fundamental freedoms.
Source:  http://www.un.org/disabilities/default.asp?id=150
Website:  http://www.un.org/disabilities/
Bookshare usage:  Identical to normal usage.


Copyright
Noun.  Abbreviation. c. or cop.  The right by law to be the entity which determines who may publish, copy and distribute a piece of writing, music, picture or other work of authorship.
Source:  http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/copyright
Bookshare usage:  Identical to normal usage.


Copyright Page
Noun.  A front matter page.
Bookshare usage:  Identical to normal usage.


DAISY Consortium
Noun.  The DAISY Consortium is an international association that develops, maintains and promotes international DAISY (Digital Accessible Information System) Standards.  The Consortium's vision is that all published information is available to people with print disabilities, at the same time and at no greater cost, in an accessible, feature-rich, navigable format.  The first DAISY Standard was proprietary, originating in Sweden in 1994.  The idea was to use digital recording and introduce some document structuring that would allow easy navigation by the user.
Source:  http://www.daisy.org/
History of the DAISY CONSORTIUM:  http://www.daisy.org/history
Bookshare usage:  Identical to normal usage.


DAISY / NIMAS
Noun.  NIMAS is the federally-mandated U.S. National Instructional Materials Accessibility Standard which identifies the minimum set of required elements from the DAISY/NISO Z39.86 Standard (the DAISY 3 Standard) which make up the NIMAS Standard.  The required electronic format is DTBook; NIMAS requirements conform to the DTBook DTD, upon which the DAISY Standard is based.
Source:  http://www.daisy.org/glossary
Bookshare usage:  Identical to normal usage.


DAISY Reader
Noun.  A device that reads DAISY format books.  Examples include Victor Reader, a book that is published online or for a handheld device, or an e-book (Electronic-BOOK), the electronic counterpart of a printed book, which can be viewed on a desktop computer or a portable device such as a laptop computer, PDA or e-book reader.
Source:  http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/digital+book
Bookshare usage:  Identical to normal usage.


Deaf-blind
Adj.  Most people who are deaf-blind have a combination of vision and hearing loss.  They usually have some useful but not always reliable vision and hearing.  Some people have little or no useable hearing and vision.  Two federal definitions of deaf-blindness exist.  One is used in primarily in education, and the other in rehabilitation.  To read more about these definitions, you can visit The National Consortium on Deaf-Blindness website at: http://www.nationaldb.org/ISSelectedTopics.php?topicCatID=6.
Source:  http://www.aadb.org/FAQ/faq_DeafBlindness.html#define
More information:  http://www.aadb.org/
Bookshare usage:  Identical to normal usage.


Donor
(sometimes Book donor)
Noun. 
Bookshare usage:  A person who mails books to Bookshare as a tax-deductible donation.  Bookshare appreciates these gifts but cannot provide when these books will be processed and be added to the library.


DPI
Noun.  Abbreviation for dots per inch, a scanning term used to tell how much a scanner can see in a picture, also used in computer monitors.
Bookshare usage:  Identical to normal usage.


DRM
Noun.  Digital Rights Management (DRM) normally refers to the technological measures applied to digital content that grant specific rights.  DRM refers broadly to any strategy or tool that is used to control who can access digital content and how they can use it.  DRM might be as simple as putting a copyright notice on a document, or it might go much farther and encrypt a document with a special code or key required to access the content.  Encryption is an example of a Technological Protection Measure (TPM) which is a kind of DRM, but the terms are often used interchangeably.
Source:  http://www.daisy.org/glossary
Bookshare usage:  Identical to normal usage.


eBook
Noun.  An electronic publication or electronic book usually (but not necessarily) a digital media version of a print publication.  There are many ebooks formats, some of which have DRM and some of which must be read on a specific eBook reader.
Source:  http://www.daisy.org/glossary
Bookshare usage:  Identical to normal usage.


Ellipsis / Ellipses
Noun.  A mark or series of marks (..., for example) used in writing or printing to indicate an omission, especially of letters or words.
Bookshare usage:  Identical to normal usage.


Em dash
Noun.  A symbol ( – ) used in writing and printing to indicate a break in thought or sentence structure, to introduce a phrase added for emphasis, definition, or explanation, or to separate two clauses.
Bookshare usage:  Identical to normal usage.


En dash
Noun.  A symbol ( - ) used in writing or printing to connect continuing or inclusive numbers or to connect elements of a compound adjective when either of the elements is an open compound.
Examples:  1880-1945, or Princeton-New York trains.
Bookshare usage:  Identical to normal usage.


First numbered page
Noun.  In the original book, the first page that has a page number.  More often than not, the first numbered page is not p. 1.
Bookshare usage: 


Freedom Scientific
Noun.  The manufacturer and creator of such accessible products such as Jaws, Openbook, and a notetaker called the Pac Mate.
Website:  http://www.freedomscientific.com
Bookshare usage:  Identical to normal usage.


Front matter
Noun.  The sections near the beginning of a book; sections before the body of a book.
Examples:  Title page, Copyright page, Table of Contents, Dedication page, Preface, Introduction, Prologue, Forward.
Contrast with:&nbps; Back matter
Bookshare usage: 


Grayscale
Noun.  Grayscale images are distinct from one-bit black-and-white images, which in the context of computer imaging are images with only the two colors, black, and white (also called bilevel or binary images).  Grayscale images have many shades of gray in between.
Source:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grayscale
Bookshare usage:  Identical to normal usage.


Hard page break
Aka:  Forced page break
Noun.  A hard page break is inserted by the user (not the application) and immediately starts the next page in the document.  Without a hard page break, word processing software will begin a new page only after the page has been filled with text, in which case the page break is called a Soft page break.
In MS Word, the shortcut key combination is  Control + Enter
See also:  Soft page break
Bookshare usage:  Identical to normal usage.


Hold for
Noun. 
Bookshare usage:  A phrase used to reserve a book in the Checkout List to be proofread by a particular volunteer.  Please honor these requests and do not check out any book with a "Hold for" unless your name also appears in the title.


Hyphen
Noun.  A punctuation mark ( - ) used between the parts of a compound word or name or between the syllables of a word, especially when divided at the end of a line of text.
Bookshare usage:  Identical to normal usage.


Image Description
Noun.  An auditory picture of what the sighted proofreader sees when describing key elements of a book that has graphic representations such as graphs, illustrations, charts, or photographs.
Bookshare usage: 


ISBN
Noun.  Abbreviation:  International Standard Book Number.
Bookshare usage:  Identical to normal usage.


JAWS
Noun.  Screen reader made by Freedom Scientific.  JAWS stands for Job Access Windows with Speech.
See:  Assistive Technology.
Bookshare usage:  Identical to normal usage.


Jiffy proofreader
Noun. 
Bookshare usage:  Someone who volunteers for Bookshare but does not check books thoroughly before sending them to the administrator for approval.  Sometimes they may send a book that needs work, but they did not check it first.


JPEG
Noun.  JPEG is an acronym for Joint Photographic Expert Group. JPEG is a glossy compression technique for color images.  Although it can reduce files sizes to about 5% of their normal size, some detail is lost in the compression.  JPEG file suffixes are .jpg or .jpeg.
Source:  http://www.daisy.org/glossary
Bookshare usage:  Identical to normal usage.


K1000
Noun.  Abbreviation for Kurzweil 1000, a scanning and recognition program made by Kurzweil Educational Systems.  This product can scan materials, and convert the pictures to readable text read aloud or save them for later.  This particular product is for those who are blind or visually impaired.  The company also makes a product called Kurzweil 3000 which is designed for those who have a reading disability but can use a mouse.
Kurzweil Educational Systems:  [www.kurzweiledu.com]
Bookshare usage:  Identical to normal usage.


Library of Congress
Noun.  The Library of Congress is the nation's oldest federal cultural institution and serves as the research arm of Congress.  It is also the largest library in the world, with millions of books, recordings, photographs, maps and manuscripts in its collections.  The Library's mission is to make its resources available and useful to the Congress and the American people and to sustain and preserve a universal collection of knowledge and creativity for future generations.
Source:  http://www.loc.gov/index.html
Bookshare usage:  Identical to normal usage.


M-dash
See:  Em dash


Manual (usually Online Manual)
Noun. 
Bookshare usage: 


MARC Record
Noun.  A MARC record is a MA chine-Readable Cataloging record.
Source:  http://www.loc.gov/marc/umb/
Bookshare usage:  Identical to normal usage.


MathML
Noun.  Mathematical Markup Language is an application of XML for describing mathematical notations and capturing both its structure and content.  It is a recommendation of the W3C math working group and aims at integrating mathematical formulas into World Wide Web documents.
See:  http://www.w3.org/Math/.
Source:  http://www.daisy.org/glossary
Bookshare usage:  Identical to normal usage.


MathML in DAISY
Noun.  MathML in DAISY is the first official Modular Extension of the DAISY Standard.
See:  http://www.daisy.org/projects/mathml/
Source:  http://www.daisy.org/glossary
Bookshare usage:  Identical to normal usage.


Metadata
Noun.  An element used to describe the content of a document, literally, 'data about data'.  The metadata information describes and identifies the book or computer document for digital indexing and archival purposes.  The end user is not necessarily aware of its presence.
Source:  http://www.daisy.org/glossary
Bookshare usage:  Data about a book, such as the title, author, ISBN number, publisher, synopis, etc.


My Checked Out Books
Noun. 
Bookshare usage:  After logging in, an area listing the books one has checked out from the Checkout List.  One can have up to five books checked out at any one time.


N-dash
See:  En dash


NIMAC
Noun.  The National Instructional Materials Access Center is a U.S. federally-funded, national electronic file repository that makes NIMAS files available for the production of core print instructional materials in specialized formats.
See:  http://www.nimac.us/
Source:  http://www.daisy.org/glossary
Bookshare usage:  Identical to normal usage.


NIMAS
Noun.  In the U.S., the National Instructional Materials Accessibility Standard (pronounced NYE-mas) outlines a set of consistent and valid XML-based source files created by K-12 curriculum publishers or other content producers.
See:  http://nimas.cast.org/.
Source:  http://www.daisy.org/glossary
Bookshare usage:  Identical to normal usage.


NLS
Noun.  National Library Service.  Through a national network of cooperating libraries, NLS administers a free library program of Braille and audio materials circulated to eligible borrowers in the United States by postage-free mail.
Source:  http://www.loc.gov/nls/
Bookshare usage:  Identical to normal usage.


Notetaker
Noun.  A device, similar to a PDA or a laptop for persons with disabilities.  These devices are used to take notes, keep track of appointments as well as other functions, some can edit and create word documents.
Examples include:  Braille+, Braillenote, Voicenote, Braillesense, Voicesense, Pack mate, Icon, and Netbook.
Bookshare usage:  Identical to normal usage.


OCLC
Noun.  Online Computer Library Center, Inc.  A not for profit computer service and research organization whose systems help libraries locate, acquire, catalog, and lend library materials.
Source:  http://www.oclc.org/us/en/default.htm
Bookshare usage:  Identical to normal usage.


OCR
Noun.  Abbreviation for Optical Character Recognition.
Bookshare usage:  Frequently used as a verb.


Online Manual
Noun. 
Bookshare usage:  Short for Bookshare's Online Manual for volunteers.
The Table of Contents is at: https://wiki.benetech.org/display/bookshare/Scanning+and+Proofreading+Manual


OpenBook
Noun.  OpenBook reading software was introduced as the first talking Windows application in 1992.
Bookshare usage: 


Open Source
Noun.  Open Source is a term that applies to software that is created and maintained using a license that makes the source code available for modification.  There are a variety of licensing schemes that this term applies to.
Examples:  General Public License (GPL), or the Lesser General Public License (LGPL).
Source:  http://www.daisy.org/glossary
Bookshare usage: 


Open Source textbooks
Noun.  Free textbooks and other reading material that is specifically written for students in courses and/or for people who just want to learn on their own.  The idea is both relatively simple and a major paradigm shift in educational publishing:  to write educational textbooks and pieces of textbooks, and to make them available as free, open source materials on the Web.
Source:  http://iae-pedia.org/Open_Source_Textbooks
Bookshare usage:  Identical to normal usage.


OSEP
Noun.  Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP).
Bookshare usage:  Identical to normal usage.


Outsourcer
Noun.  See:  Subcontractor.
Bookshare usage:  Most often refers to one of the social enterprise organizations subcontracted to chop, scan, and proofread books for Bookshare.


Page break
Noun.  A type of page break in the text of Word documents.
Contrast with:  Section break
Bookshare usage: 


Paragraph mark
Noun. 
aka:  Carriage return
A character that indicates the end of a paragraph.
Bookshare usage: 


PDF
Noun.  Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 for document exchange.  Adobe PDF is used for representing two-dimensional documents in a manner independent of the application software, hardware, and operating system.
Source:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portable_Document_Format
Bookshare usage: 


Print disabled
Noun, Adjective.  A person who cannot effectively read print because of a visual, physical, perceptual, developmental, cognitive, or learning disability.
When used as an adjective, it should be hyphenated, as in 'print-disabled person'.
Source:  http://www.daisy.org/glossary
Bookshare usage: 


Proof
Verb.  Short for proofread.  To check a written text for errors in spelling and grammar.
Source:  http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/proofread
Bookshare usage:  Identical to normal usage.


Proofread
Verb.  Proofreading consists of reviewing any text, either hard copy on paper or electronic copy on a computer, and checking for typos and formatting errors.  This may be done either against an original document or "blind" (without checking against any other source).  Many modern proofreaders are also required to take on some light copy-editing duties, such as checking for grammar and consistency issues.
Source:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proofreading
Bookshare usage:  The Chafee Amendment allows no copy-editing by Bookshare staff or volunteers.


Proofreader
Noun.  A person who proofreads a book. 
Bookshare usage:  Proofreading for Bookshare is correcting errors in the scanned copy of a book, and formatting the file so it can be converted into accessible formats.  Bookshare is legally obligated to retain the integrity of the print version, even typos and grammar errors, so our use of the word 'proofreading' is a bit different from how it's commonly used.


Reading machine
Noun.  A reading machine is an electronic appliance that scans a printed page, and through an internal synthesized voice, reads the printed material back to you.  A good reading machine is compact, easy to use, and versatile, with a pleasant, tactile surface, and a clear voice that uses life-like intonations.
Bookshare usage:  Identical to normal usage.


Reading system
Noun.  The hardware/software platform that renders the contents of a digital publication to a reader.  This term is normally associated with EPUB and DAISY publications.
See also:  Playback System.
Source:  http://www.daisy.org/glossary
Bookshare usage:  Identical to normal usage.


Ready for Proofreading
Noun. 
Bookshare usage:  A book in this state of processing is in the Checkout List.  This is indicated in the Status column of the Search Results from an Advanced Search of the Bookshare Library.


Review
Noun or Verb.  A second or subsequent reading of a text or artifact.
Source:  http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Review
Bookshare usage:  Identical to normal usage.


RTF
Noun.  Rich Text Format, a proprietary document file format developed by Microsoft for cross-platform document interchange.
Source:  http://www.daisy.org/glossary
Bookshare usage:  Identical to normal usage.


RTF Converter
Noun. 
Bookshare usage:  Bookshare software that runs immediately after a proofreader volunteer has uploaded (done a Check in of) their finished RTF proof back to Bookshare.  This software converts the source RTF files into various accessible formats such as Daisy and BRF.  To do that, it must remove much basic formatting from every file.


Running Footer
Noun.  Textual information, such as the book title, author, or chapter number, positioned at the bottom margin of a page and usually repeated throughout a document.
See also:  Running header
Bookshare usage:


Running Header
Noun.  Textual information, such as the book title, author, or chapter number, positioned at the top margin of a page and usually repeated throughout a document.
See also:  Running Footer
Bookshare usage: 


Scan
Verb.  To create a digital copy of an image using a scanner.
Noun.  The result or output of a scan.
Source:  http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Scan
Bookshare usage: 


Screen reader
Noun.  A system that speaks aloud information from a computer display, for users with impaired vision.
Bookshare usage:  Identical to normal usage.


Section break
Noun.  A type of page break in the text of Word documents.
Contrast with:  Page break
Bookshare usage: 


Show / Hide
Noun. 
aka:  Show All  in Word 2003
Bookshare usage:  Very useful when proofreading.  Displays 'nonprinting characters' in a Word file.  These characters are usually hidden and include paragraph marks, tabs, spaces, etc.


Side information
Noun.  The elements within a document which are not part of the main body text.  Often called side bars, notes, marginalia, margin notes. Source:  http://www.daisy.org/glossary
Bookshare usage:  Identical to normal usage.


Soft page break
Noun.  A soft page break is inserted automatically by the application (not the user), but starts the next page in the document only after the page has been filled with text.
See also:  Hard page break
Bookshare usage:  Identical to normal usage.


Spine
Noun.  The spine is the vertical edge of a book as it normally stands on a bookshelf.  It is customary for it to have printed text on it.  In texts published and/or printed in the United States, the spine text, when vertical, runs from the top to the bottom, such that it is right side up when the book is lying flat with the front cover on top.  In books of Europe, vertical spine text traditionally runs from the bottom up, though this convention has been changing lately.
The spine usually contains all, or some, of four (4) elements (besides decoration, if any), and in the following order: (1) author, editor, or compiler; (2) title; (3) publisher; and (4) publisher logo.
Bookshare usage:  Identical to normal usage.


Subcontractor
Noun.  A contractor hired by a general contractor employed by the contractor rather than directly hired by the customer.
Source:  http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/subcontractor
Bookshare usage:  Often used to refer to one of the social entrepreneurial organization that assist Benetech with scanning and proofing.


Submitter
Noun.  A Bookshare volunteer who scans a book.  A Submitter uploads their scan to the Checkout List for another volunteer to proofread.
Bookshare usage: 


UDL
Noun.  Universal Design for Learning recognizes that every learner is unique and processes information differently.  UDL is based on CAST's research related to three primary brain networks (recognition network, strategic network, and affective network) and the roles they play in understanding these differences.
Bookshare usage:  Identical to normal usage.


URL
Noun.  A Uniform Resource Locator is a subset of the Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) that specifies where an identified resource is available and the mechanism for retrieving it.  In popular usage and in many technical documents and verbal discussions it is often incorrectly used as a synonym for URI. In popular language, a URI is also referred to as a Web address.
Bookshare usage:  Identical to normal usage.


Verso
Noun.  The verso is the "back" side and the recto the "front" side of a leaf of paper in a bound item such as a book, broadsheet, or pamphlet.  Thus in languages written from left to right (like English), the recto is the right-hand page and the verso the left-hand page.  These are terms of art in the binding, printing, and publishing industries, and can be applied more broadly to any field where physical documents are exchanged.  The term recto-verso describes two-sided text.
Source:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Recto_and_verso
Bookshare usage:  Identical to normal usage.


W3C
Noun.  The World Wide Web Consortium, the standard body key to the functionality of the World Wide Web, including HTML, XML, and Cascading Style Sheets.  The W3C site includes the latest public versions of their standards as well as other information about the web and standard processes.
See:  http://www.w3.org.
Bookshare usage:  Identical to normal usage.


WAI
Noun.  Web Accessibility Initiative.  The WAI is the international portion of the W3C with the goal of making the web usable by all persons.
See:  http://www.w3.org/WAI/.
Bookshare usage:  Identical to normal usage.


Wiki
Noun.  A website that allows for the easy creation and editing of any number of interlinked web pages via a web browser using a simplified markup language or a WYSIWYG text editor.  Wikis are typically powered by wiki software and are often used to create collaborative websites, to power community websites.  "Wiki" has been backronymed by some to "What I Know Is".
Source:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wiki
Bookshare usage:  The wiki space hosted by Benetech for internal documents as in "It's on the wiki."


WindowEyes
Noun.  Screen reading software by GW Micro for a computer that uses the Windows operating system.  Window-Eyes options are accessible via a speech control panel.
Source:  https://www.gwmicro.com/Window-Eyes/
Bookshare usage:  Identical to normal usage.


WIPO
Noun.  The World Intellectual Property Organization is one of the 16 specialized agencies of the United Nations.
See:  http://www.wipo.int/.
Bookshare usage:  Identical to normal usage.


Word file
Noun. 
Bookshare usage:  Identical to normal usage.


Word skills
Noun. 
Bookshare usage:  The ability to use Microsoft Word usually in the context of proofreading scanned books submitted to Bookshare for processing to DAISY.




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