4.9 A. Proofreading using Microsoft Word 2003

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4.9  A.  Proofreading using Microsoft Word 2003

Contributed by Bookshare volunteer Judy S.


Back to:  4. Proofread a Book

              1)  Verify the Copyright
              2)  Title page
              3)  Clean up preliminary pages and confirm an accurate page count
              4)  Change "Section Breaks" to "Page Breaks"
              5)  Do a general check to see if the book is complete
              6)  Standardize the "Font Style" and the "Font Size" of text and headings
              7)  Format the Font Size of the book Title and Author
              8)  "Protect" Chapter Headings
              9)  Remove all "Running Headers"
              10)  Label all Blank Pages in the body of the book
              11)  Reconnect words broken across page breaks
              12)  Standardize paragraph format
              13)  Number all pages
              14)  Remove all extra blank lines
              15)  Individually correct all instances of line feeds
              16)  Convert Microsoft "Smart quotes" to standard quotes
              17)  Remove any extra carriage returns inadvertently inserted by the OCR
              18)  Replace any instance of tabs with spaces
              19)  Remove extra blank spaces that occur between words
              20)  Separate paragraphs between speakers
              21)  Standardize ellipses
              22)  Convert "em dashes" to double hyphens, and remove spaces around all hyphens
              23)  Replace bullet points with asterisks
              24)  Run a spelling check
              25)  Read, to check the content of the book
              26)  Save the file


1)  Verify the Copyright

Please make sure that the book has a valid copyright, including both the copyright holder and the copyright date.  Without a copyright, your book will be rejected!


2)  Title page

Make sure the book has a valid Title page that contains:
-  the title of the book,
-  the author's name, and
-  the publisher.


3)  Clean up preliminary pages and confirm an accurate page count


Note:  Step 3a. applies only to those scanning a book (Submitters), and not to Proofreaders.

3a)  Label your scans of the back cover and book jacket flaps (if they scanned legibly) as follows:
[From the Back Cover]
[From the Front Flap]
[From the Back Flap]


Note:  The next 2 steps are for both Submitters and Proofreaders.
3b)  Label any Blank Pages that are in these preliminary pages with the phrase:

[BLANK PAGE]

making sure to include the square brackets.


3c)  Read through all preliminary pages and correct all "scannos".



4)  Change "Section Breaks" to "Page Breaks"

With most scanned books, the OCR will insert Section Breaks between the pages of text, instead of Page Breaks.  Change Section Breaks to Page Breaks as follows:

  ^p  is the symbol for a Paragraph Mark  (aka a Carriage Return)

  ^m  is the symbol for a Page Break


Open the Find and Replace dialogue by typing:
  Control + h

(that is the Control key, followed by the h key)


In the Find box, type:
  ^b

(caret, then lower case letter 'b')


In the Replace box, type:
  ^p^m^p

(caret, lower case letter 'p', caret, lower case letter 'm', caret, lower case letter 'p')

Replace All.


This will also result in each page break having a blank line above and below it.
Please note:
-  All blank lines will be automatically removed by Bookshare software (called the "RTF Converter"),
   immediately after you upload your finished proof.
-  However, the blank lines here can be of help
   when a Bookshare Quality Control person checks your proof.


5)  Do a general check to see if the book is complete

Find page one, and the last page of the book.

Determine where the publisher thought page one should go.  If that page isn't numbered:
-  insert a blank line at the top of the page,
-  then the numeral 1 on the next line,
-  then another blank line.

Check that the last page in the book is numbered properly, telling you that you do not have any missing or duplicated pages.

If the numbers don’t match, either rescan and insert pages that were missed, or delete duplicated pages.


6)  Standardize the "Font Style" and the "Font Size" of text and headings


Font Style:
>  all text in the body of the book:
    set to Times New Roman


Font Size:
>  all text in the body of the book:
    -  set to 12 point

>  all chapter sub headings  (if any exist):
    -  set to 14 point, and
    -  add bolding

>  all chapter headings:
    -  set to 16 point, and
    -  add bolding

>  all larger section headings  (if any exist, such as "Part I" or "Section A"):
    -  set to 18 point, and
    -  add bolding


Then set scale, spacing and position of Font to "normal" by doing the following.

Open the Font formatting menu by typing the following key sequence:
  Alt + o + f

(the Alt key, followed by the lower case o key, followed by the lower case f key)


On the tab for Character spacing, set:
  -  the Scale to 100%,
  -  the Spacing to Normal, and
  -  the Position to Normal.

Special note:  You don't have to use Times New Roman as the specific font.  Other common straightforward fonts, like Georgia, Arial, Verdana and Garamond are fine.

Special note:  Because your Chapter Headings will lose their formatting, if they had any, they will be optimized in the next step for best conversion by Bookshare's tools.


7)  Format the Font Size of the book Title

On the book's Title page:

>  select the text of the Title and:
    -  set the Font Size to 20 point, and
    -  add bolding
    -  If the title appears more than once, only set the font size to 20 point the first time it appears

>  leave the remaining text on the title page, including author and publisher, in 12 point font


8)  "Protect" Chapter Headings

Protect all chapter headings by placing the page number followed by a blank line above the chapter heading and a blank line between the chapter heading and the text on the page.  You do not need to move all page numbers to the tops of pages, but doing this on the pages that has chapter headings helps to protect the chapter headings from being accidentally removed by a software tool used by Bookshare to process the book after it has been proofread.  When you do need to move a page number from the bottom of a page to the top to protect the chapter heading, make sure that only one page number exists on each page.


9)  Remove all "Running Headers"

Books often contain what are called "Running Headers" that repeat the book title, or the author name, or sometimes the chapter name, at the top of each page.  Occasionally these occur at the bottom of each page and are then called "Running Footers".

Running headers should be manually removed from all pages.

Be careful to preserve page numbers when you do this, because many publishers place page numbers at the beginning or end of a running header.

Remove all running headers only after protecting chapter headings, as very often the absence of a running header is the only indication of where a poorly scanned chapter heading should go.


10)  Label all Blank Pages in the body of the book

Previously we labeled all Blank Pages in the Front Matter of the book.  Now we'll do the same for all Blank Pages in the body of the book.
Page down through the document, numbering and labeling all blank pages with the phrase:

[BLANK PAGE]

making sure to include the square brackets around the phrase.


11)  Reconnect words broken across page breaks

Examine the first word on each page to be sure that it is a complete word.  If not, reconnect hyphenated words that have become broken across page breaks, so that the complete word exists only on one page.

An easy way to search for these is to open the Find and Replace dialogue by typing:
  Control + h

In the Find box, type:
  -^p 

(a hyphen, a caret, and a lower case letter 'p')


Correct each instance that you find.


12)  Standardize paragraph format

(This step is for books that do not contains tables.)

Select all text by doing a:
  Control + a

(hold down the Control key while tapping the 'a' key once)


Under your version of Word's paragraph formatting menu, set the indents and spacing as follows:

  -  Alignment:  left

  -  Indentation left:  zero

  -  Indentation right:  zero

  -  First line indent:  none

  -  Spacing before paragraphs:  zero

  -  Spacing after paragraphs:  zero

  -  Line spacing:  single


13)  Number all pages

  -  Insert page numbers where they did not scan
  -  Number preliminary pages with lower case roman numerals,
     making sure that a blank line exists on either side of the page number.


If the page number is on the top of the page, each page should be formatted as follows:


Page break

One blank line

Page number

One blank line

Text of that page

One blank line

Page Break



If the page number is on the bottom of the page, each page should be formatted as follows:


Page break

One blank line

Text of that page

One blank line

Page number

One blank line

Page break



14)  Remove all extra blank lines

Open the Find and Replace dialogue by typing:
  Control + h

In the "Find" box, type:
  ^p^p^p 

(^p is the character string that will search for a Paragraph Mark, aka a Carriage Return)

In the "Replace" box, type:
  ^p^p

then execute a "Replace All" repeatedly until there are zero replacements.


This will get rid of all instances of more than one blank line between:
  -  any blocks of text, and
  -  between page numbers and chapter headings, and
  -  between page numbers and text on a page.


15)  Individually correct all instances of line feeds

Scanning programs may insert Manual Line Breaks (aka Line Feeds), which should really be a paragraph mark, or just a space between words.

There is no way to automatically determine how to correct these.  Each one should be found and then corrected individually based on what you find.  To find them:

In the Find box type:
  ^l

(a caret, followed by a lower case letter 'l')


Then correct each instance you find.


16)  Convert Microsoft "Smart quotes" to standard quotes

To remove double Smart Quotes using Find and Replace:

In the Find box, type:
  ^0147

(a caret, then the numbers)

In the Replace box, type:
  ^0034

Replace All.


In the Find box, type:
  ^0148

In the Replace box, type:
  ^0034

Replace All.


The characters used for single Smart Quotes also include instances of apostrophes and the possessive case.  To remove single Smart Quotes using Find and Replace:

In the Find box, type:
  ^0145

In the Replace box, type:
  ^0039

Replace All.


In the Find box, type:
  ^0146

In the Replace box, type:
  ^0039

Replace All.


17)  Remove any extra carriage returns inadvertently inserted by the OCR

Now that you have already eliminated any extra blank lines,  you want to get rid of any unwanted carriage returns in the text.  This involves using the find and replace command 27 times.  This sounds tedious and time consuming, but in practice takes only between three and five minutes.

Special note:  The next part of this step is specific to ordinary prose.  It may cause loss of proper formatting when used with poetry.  Before you begin, you want to ensure that you do not lose the blank lines at the tops of pages.  Simply go to the beginning of the book, or to the beginning of the text if you are sure the preliminary pages are in excellent condition and do the following:

In the Find box, type:
  ^p^p

In the Replace box type two instances of a character that is not likely to appear in the book.  A good choice is:
  $$

(that is dollar, dollar)

Replace All.


Next, in the Find box, type:
  ^m^p

In the Replace box enter two instances of a new unique character that is not likely to appear in the book.  A good choice is:
  %%

(that is percent, percent)

Just make sure it is not the same character that you just chose in the previous step.

Replace All.


Now you are going to look for Paragraph Marks that shouldn't be there.

You will do this with each letter of the alphabet in lower case.  To make sure you will only affect the correct words, make sure the search option box for "Match case" is checked for doing this step.

In the Find box type:
  ^pa

(that is the caret key, followed immediately by the lower case letters 'p' and 'a')

In the Replace box, type:
  space a

(that is, tap the space bar once, followed immediately by the lower case letter 'a')

Make sure, once again, to check the box in the Find and Replace dialogue for Match case.

Replace All.


Now repeat this for every letter in the alphabet.  After you have gone through the alphabet, go back to the beginning of the book.  Now you will undo the search and replace you used to preserve the blank lines, and restore them.

First, make sure you uncheck the box in the find and replace dialogue for Match case. It won't affect this step any further, but you don't want it to remain checked because it can affect other searches you will make later.


In the Find box, enter:
  $$
(or whatever other character you used to take the place of your blank lines)

In the Replace box, enter:
  ^p^p

Replace All.


Now you will undo the Find and Replace you used to preserve page breaks and the blank space after them and restore them.

In the Find box, enter:
  %%
(or whatever other character you used to take the place of your blank lines)

In the Replace box, enter:
  ^m^p

Replace All.


18)  Replace any instance of tabs with spaces

(Be careful doing this with a 'Replace All' if the book you are proofreading contains tables.)

To replace tabs with spaces using the Find and Replace dialogue, do this:

In the Find box, type:
  ^t

In the Replace box, type:
  one space

(hit the space bar once)

Replace All.

Special note:  If the book contains tables, instead of doing a 'Replace All' you will need to search for each instance of a tab and replace it individually, so as to not accidentally destroy the formatting of a table.


19)  Remove extra blank spaces that occur between words

Using the Find and Replace dialogue, replace two spaces with one space:

In the Find box, type:
  space space

(this is a space, followed a second space, created by tapping the space bar two times)

In the Replace box, type:
  space

(this is a single space, created by tapping the space bar only once)

Replace All.


Repeat until Word tells you there are zero replacements.


20)  Separate paragraphs between speakers

This step will separate any paragraphs between speakers that might not have been separated by the OCR program, which does happen regularly.

In the Find box, type:
  " "

(That is a quotation mark, followed by a space, followed by a quotation mark)

In the Replace box, type:
  "^p"

(That is a quotation mark, followed by a caret, followed by a lower case letter 'p', followed by a quotation mark)


Then correct each instance you find.


21)  Standardize ellipses

Make sure that all ellipsis are:
    -  exactly three periods, with
    -  no spaces before them, and
    -  no spaces between them.

If this is not done, an ellipsis will not be represented properly in Braille.


To remove spaces between ellipsis:

In the Find box, type:
  . .

(dot, space, dot)

In the Replace box, type:
  ..

(dot, dot)

Replace All.


Repeat until zero replacements.


To reduce the number of consecutive dots from 5 to 4:

In the Find box, type 5 dots (or periods):
  .....

(dot, dot, dot, dot, dot)

In the Replace box type 4 dots (periods):
  ....

(dot, dot, dot, dot)

Replace All.


Repeat until zero replacements.


22)  Convert "em dashes" to double hyphens, and remove spaces around all hyphens

Convert em dashes to double hyphens by using the Find and Replace dialogue as follows:

In the Find box, type:
  ^+

(a caret, then a plus sign)

In the Replace box, type:
  --

(That is two hyphens or two dashes, depending upon what you call that key to the right of the zero on the number row.)


Using the Find and Replace dialogue, remove spaces surrounding both single and double hyphens as follows:

In the Find box, type:
  space-

(a space, followed by a hyphen)

In the Replace box, type:
  -

(one hyphen)

Replace All.


In the Find box, type
  -space

(one hyphen, followed by a space)

In the Replace box, type:
  -

(one hyphen)

Replace All.


23)  Replace bullet points with asterisks

Braille does not correctly translate bullet points from Word.  In some cases, you will need to find each bullet point and replace it individually with an asterisk.  If the book has scanned with standard bullet points, however, you can replace them with an asterisk by the following:

Copy the bullet by highlighting one bullet and using the standard 'Copy' key sequence:
  Control + c

Paste the bullet into the Find box by using the standard 'Paste' key sequence:
  Control + v

In the Replace box, type:
  *

(an asterisk)

Replace all.


24)  Run a spelling check

Correct all scannos as the spell checker finds them.


25)  Read, to check the content of the book

-  Ensure the complete content of book is present
-  Set apart photo and image captions
-  Set apart footnotes
-  Set apart sidebars and text boxes that interrupt the flow of the main text (found mostly in nonfiction books)

At this point, read the book and correct any errors that the spell checker didn't find.  As you read through the book, look for photo and image captions that are within the text.  Separate them from the text by:
-  surrounding captions with a set of square brackets,
-  surrounding captions within double quotes, and
-  adding the phrase "Image caption:" in front of the caption.


For example, for an image caption that reads:

Our family, down by the lake.


would be done in this way:

[Image caption: "Our family, down by the lake."]


As you find footnotes, one way to make sure they are separated from the regular text of the book is to superscript them, and put a space before them.  If the footnotes are at the bottom of a page, add a blank line above the footnotes and enclose them in square brackets as follows:

[Footnote text:]


As you find sidebars and text boxes that interrupt the flow of the text, separate them from the regular text of the book by surrounding the sidebar or textbox in square brackets and adding the phrase "Sidebar" or "Text Box" in front of the text as follows:

[Sidebar: text of sidebar]

or

[Text Box: text of text box].


26)  Save the file

Make sure you save as rtf, not as a Word document, when you close the file.  Now you can upload the book for approval!



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