4.8 D. Fractions, Columns, Abbreviation standards

Skip to end of metadata
Go to start of metadata

The page Scanning And Proofreading Manual does not exist.

4.8  D.  Fractions, Columns, Abbreviation standards

Go back to:  4. Proofreading a Book


              1)  Fractions
                   a.  Simple fractions:  Use 3 characters for them
                   b.  Compound fractions:  They may have a dash, or not
                   c.  Decimal fractions:  It's fine to use them
                   d.  Stop MS Word from using "one character fractions"
              2)  Columns
              3)  Standards for abbreviations
                   a.  Spell out abbreviations as this eliminates ambiguity
                   b.  Terms for Temperature may be abbreviated
                   c.  Case does matter!


1)  Fractions

      a.  Simple fractions:  Use 3 characters for them

           Do not:     Use a single character for any fraction!
           Do:           Use 3 characters for every fraction, with a forward slash between the two digits.


           Example

           Currently, the one-character symbol for "one half"  ½  does not display properly in DAISY.
           Therefore amounts of ingredients using this character won't show up at all.

           Instead of the one-character symbol, always use 3 characters:
               the number '1',
               a forward slash,
               then the number '2'.


           This is true for these commonly used special character fractions in Microsoft Word:
               ¼        one quarter
               ½        one half
               and
               ¾        three quarters


           Testing showed that using three characters such as  1/2, works well in VictorReader Soft,
           Read:OutLoud, and AnyDaisy.


           MS Word will automatically replace each of these three character symbols with the one character
           symbol, unless one knows to set it otherwise.  (See below)


     b.  Compound fractions:  They may have a dash, or not

           To be Braille-friendly, complex fractions can be written with a dash between the whole number
           and the fraction.  For practical reasons, Bookshare accepts complex fractions with and without
           a dash between the whole number and the fraction.

           Examples

           With a dash between the the whole number and the fraction, such as:
           1-1/2


           With a space between the the whole number and the fraction, such as:
           1 1/2


           Complex fractions are sometimes called "mixed numbers".


     c.  Decimal fractions:  It's fine to use them

           Fractions may be written as decimals.

           Example

               1/2 mile

           may be written as

               .5 miles


      d.  Stop MS Word from inserting "one character fractions"

           You can turn off one of the autocorrect options which automatically changes the three
           characters of  1/2  for example, into the one character symbol  ½ .

           There are two places to uncheck boxes.


             Word 2007  

           1.  Click on the Microsoft Office Button in the upper left corner (of Word 2007).

           2.  Click on Word Options (lower right corner of the drop down box)

           3.  Click on Proofing (in the list in the left pane).

           4.  Choose AutoCorrect Options (top button in the right pane).

           5.  Switch to the AutoFormat tab and uncheck both the Ordinals and the Fractions check boxes.

           6.  Switch to the AutoFormat as You Type tab and uncheck the same two boxes:
                the Ordinals and Fractions check boxes.

           7.  Click OK in this, the AutoCorrect window.

           8.  Click OK again in the next window, the Word Options window.


             Word 2003  

           1.  Click on the Tools menu.

           2.  Select AutoCorrect Options.

           3.  Switch to the AutoFormat tab and uncheck both the Ordinals and the Fractions check boxes.

           4.  Switch to the AutoFormat as You Type tab and uncheck the same two boxes:
                the Ordinals and Fractions check boxes.

           5.  Click OK in this, the AutoCorrect window.


2)  Columns

      Columns present a challenge for screen readers and other forms of Assistive Technology (AT) used
      to read books.  The example below presents a list of ingredients which, in the original book, occur
      in two columns.

      The OCR will place an ingredient from a second column on the same line as an ingredient from the
      first column.  Please change this to have:
      -  only 1 ingredient per line, and
      -  all items in the 2nd column placed below all items in the 1st column.


      Example

      A riff on the carnivore-sounding though actually vegetarian recipe from Shakespeare's Macbeth
      might scan like this:

      1 Eye of newt          2 toes of frog
      1 Wool of bat          2 tongues of dog
      3 Adder's forks        1 blind-worm's sting
      2 Lizard's legs         1 howlet's wing


      The above should be changed to

      1 Eye of newt
      1 Wool of bat
      3 Adder's forks
      2 Lizard's legs
      2 toes of frog
      2 tongues of dog
      1 blind-worm's sting
      1 howlet's wing


      Dog-lovers need not worry (nor newt-lovers)... all of the above are flowers!


TOP OF PAGE


3)  Standards for abbreviations

      a.  Spell out abbreviations as this eliminates ambiguity

           Examples

           c.        should be spelled out as      cups

           mL      should be spelled out as      milliliter


      b.  Terms for Temperature may be abbreviated

           To indicate degrees of temperature:  Follow the number directly with an  F  or  C.
           In other words, don't put a space between the number and the letter.

           Examples

               400F
               35C


      c.  Case does matter!

           Spell out "Teaspoon" and "Tablespoon"

           Currently data is being lost when the capital letter  T  and the lower case letter  t  are not spelled
           out as tablespoon and teaspoon.

           And since there is only a one letter difference in abbreviations for tablespoon and teaspoon, this
           leaves little room for error if the OCR does not perfectly render the single-letter abbreviations.


           Please spell out the words teaspoon and tablespoon, as well as other abbreviations, as
           this eliminates ambiguity:

              -  All lowercase            t  must be entered as             teaspoon

              -  All uppercase           T  must be entered as             tablespoon


              -  All abbreviations        tsp  must be entered as         teaspoon

              -  All abbreviations        tbsp  must be entered as       tablespoon



TOP OF PAGE
The page Scanning And Proofreading Manual does not exist.

Enter labels to add to this page:
Please wait 
Looking for a label? Just start typing.